Reforming Dialogue with North Korea

Spiritual Reformism

The movement of Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui) has a radical attitude related to the libertarian communism, appealing to build a healthy and educated society by means of a revolutionary activism and a new current of thought. But this involves going beyond any dogmatism and authoritarianism, studying a theory that synthesizes the vision of Siddharta Gautama and Karl Marx, so the Maitriyana appreciates Han Yongun as a Korean thinker who implemented the development of Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui).[1]

The pioneering work of Maitriyana does not start from an intellectual experience but from the abandonment of the bourgeois greeds and behaviours, although this may be perceived as an idealistic attitude according to the look of capitalism. In the Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui) there is a spiritual conversion which results in an anti status quo position, so that the spiritual master is often accused of spreading extremist and subversive ideas. However, there have been extraordinary spiritual beings that have had the courage to transmit communist or anarchist ideas, such as the monk Kim Songsuk, who assumed a radical position to overcome the religious institutions. But the Maitriyana is neither anti-religious nor pro-religious, being rather a Libertarian Spirituality that influences the world to establish a mystical postmodern paradigm. This implies a critique of the Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui) to Catholicism and evangelism being the religion of the capitalist civilization, whereas Mohammedanism is the religion of the feudal civilization. Instead, Spirituality is the key element of the transcultural fortitude of the libertarian socialist civilization which will be the next period of humanity. Thus, the new movement of Cultural Revolution of Maitriyana emphasizes a meta-religious and anti-imperialist vision, by taking the provocative decision to promote libertarian communism as a progressive and reactionary form facing the primitive ideas of ordinary humanity. Just like what happened in China, the Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui) criticizes the predominance of superstition and metaphysical faith, although it also includes the radical mistrust of the economic, political and social State power. At the same time the Maitriyana adopts the resolution of abolishing war, social injustice, ignorance and pollution, additionally denouncing to the governmental administration of the world as rigidly centralized and authoritarian. Consequently, the Free and Enlightened Being (Arhat-Bodhisattva) proclaims the Spirituality as the only Way that can cope with the losses and damages caused both by the religious institutions and the state Power, serving the development of Truth as a form of combating the opium of the peoples. This post religious and antistate struggle is highly prominent on the agenda of the spiritual master, whose libertarian communist leadership has the supreme task of organizing a humanity unified and reconciled through the compassionate wisdom (karuna-prajña).

The Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui) is then the vehicle for progress and liberation of the society, functioning as a radical, transnational, reformist and pro-democratic organization, which peaceably struggles against the hegemony of materialism. Certainly, the Spirituality is a self-awareness of the oppressive and alienating Power which both the state and religion possess, being the realization of the Purpose (Dharma) of the human being, whose main flavouring is Liberty, Equality and Fraternity. The movement of Maitriyana demonstrates a separation between religion and Spirituality which implies that if Marxism is against the religious field of dogma it should not necessarily be against the spiritual Way of Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui). Therefore, the radical currents of Maitriyana are directly involved in the libertarian communism, such as the great Han Yongun did.[2]

The Free and Enlightened Being (Arhat-Bodhisattva) develops a Path of radical reform of the world, fighting peacefully for the reconciliation of the peoples. Therefore, the metapolitics of the Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui) emphasizes the altruistic nature of Spirituality, by providing it the appropriate function of being the guide towards the evolution and Salvation of humanity. This leads to the Evanescence of the survival of the fittest, defending the oppressed people through Love of Truth and the compassionate wisdom (karuna-prajña). Thus, the understanding of Buddhist Spirituality is indispensable to successfully establish the Great Awakening (Maha Bodhi) of the postmodern world, giving opportunities of reaching the Cure (Nirvana) to both the subject and the community. This pioneering attempt to transcend the capitalist civilization and appeal to the spiritual ideals of altruism and kindness is concordant with the vision of Takakusu Junjiro.

The Maitriyana thinking is a harmonization between egalitarianism and cosmopolitanism (segyejuui), stating that from the idea of the universal Buddhic nature of all beings, Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui) is both the Libertarian Spirituality of postmodern present and the great utopian unity of the future world.[3] In fact, the libertarian and internationalist principles of Maitriyana are based on the Liberty, Equality and Fraternity for all beings, building a global civilization wherein all the peoples work as a big family, thus banishing greed, hatred and ignorance. The Analytical-Existential-Libertarian Discourse (Buddha-Dharma-Sangha) of the spiritual master carries out the civilization of the future in the here and now as a Kingdom of Righteousness on Earth. According to the Free and Enlightened Being (Arhat-Bodhisattva), this future society will be called a Buddhist world because it will be free, egalitarian and fraternal.[4] In this sense, the Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui) should be understood as libertarian internationalism based on the idea of brotherhood and solidarity, which implies the establishment of a human rights Communism that brings social economic and political justice among the entire people. Certainly, the spiritual master believes that the capitalist system is perverse, cruel and inhuman in its quest for materialistic benefits, so that abandoning this type of monetary civilization is essential for the survival of humanity and the future advent of a Buddhist world of a great unity.

Given that the economic, political and cultural inequality is a central feature of capitalist civilization, the Free and Enlightened Being (Arhat-Bodhisattva) proposes a kind of civilization of a socialist (sahoejuui) orientation which is based on the global alternative order of solidarity. This progressive and postmodern tendency starts from the altruistic principle of Maitriyana, not only accusing the global Power of being selfish, dualistic and consumerist instead of working for the Salvation of the world, but also creating a Kingdom of Righteousness and compassionate wisdom (karuna-prajña) for all the peoples. Thus the Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui) is altruistic, dialectical and detached, forming apprentices willing to devote their lives in pursuit of Awakening (Bodhi) and the Salvation of all beings.[5] These is the great desire of every spiritual master following the Path of Gautama, Confucius and Jesus in order to wisely and compassionately confront the world of competition and monetary gain, whose civilization is built upon the strength of greed, hatred and ignorance. The doctrinal values of Maitriyana are then a radical opposition to the modern barbaric civilization based on imperialism and militarism, promoting a realistic Way to build the Buddhist society of the great unity, egalitarianism and altruism in the contemporary world. Certainly, the Free and Enlightened Being (Arhat-Bodhisattva) does nothing but being a devotee of this new era of peace.[6]

Consequently, the Path of Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui) is constituted in a political, economic and cultural context of postmodern direction, producing radical social changes based on the ideas of mutual support from Kropotkin and on the universal love of Han Yongun, which are contemplative practices of Maitriyana. This support and love for all beings is the best way to confront the evils of nationalism and imperialism, since it is about the existential Truth which will eventually become reality.[7] Precisely the libertarian meditation demonstrates that the communist or anarchist connotations of Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui) are not based on an idealist or metaphysical theory, but in a holistic and integrative vision in which what composes the mind is identical to what composes the material reality, so that the Cure (Nirvana) of the subject can also be replicated for the Awakening (Bodhi) of society. Thus, the experience of Emptiness (Sunyata) provides a radical revolution of inner and outer world. Indeed, the seed of the Liberation which is present in all beings is the only thing which never dies in the phenomenal reality.[8]

The economic ethics of Maitriyana provides a foundation for understanding the communist nature of the teachings of Gautama, whose economic detachment is emphasized strongly by the Way of Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui). Therefore, the spiritual master criticizes the accumulation of property and social inequity by living in the ideal of non-consumerism. But this metapolitics of Maitriyana is also concordant with the Christian Socialism of thinkers such as Kagawa Toyohiko,[9]  criticizing the hedonistic impulses by means of an ethical radicalism quite similar to the political and economic ideas of Karl Marx. Thus, Han Yongun in Korea together with Seno’o Giro in Japan showed how to correctly and radically lead the Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui), maintaining the universal principles of brotherhood, non-violence and the communal society (kyodo shakai) free from selfishness, dualism and consumerism.[10] Therefore, the revolutionary contemplation (kakumei-zen) fades the psychical causes of social suffering, such as attachment, aversion and unconsciousness because they lead to material exploitation, war and injustice. But the Analytical Existential-Libertarian Discourse (Buddha-Dharma-Sangha) of Maitriyana is not much different from pacifist and socialist teachings of Jesus, whose movement was opposed to militarism and the violent domination of the oppressed ones, trying to build a society based on mutual support and Spiritual Love. Only in this way the people will no longer be based on the pursuit of economic gain to move to be based on solidarity. Therefore, the Engaged Spirituality of Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui) is consistent with the ideas of the Liberation Theology in teaching an alternative to the capitalist civilization. However, although the Maitriyana is close to the libertarian communism it criticizes the materialistic dogmas of the authoritarian communism of Stalin,[11] since the repression and persecution do not lead to the purification of society. Actually, only the Spirituality has the power to achieve Cure (Nirvana) of the people by eradicating the illusory beliefs –both metaphysical and materialistic – through the practice of libertarian meditation. But if one tries to banish religiosity by means of violence this fact will do nothing but strengthen it, since the religious beliefs are part of the structure of the mind, this being the reason why the authoritarian communism tends to behave as a religion in which there is an absolute faith and their assumptions and results never are put in doubt. Therefore, the Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui) starts from the transformation of the apprentice in order to properly liberate society. In this way, the Maitriyana is beyond the political false dualism between left and right, positioning itself as a Middle Way which transcends all extreme, because only this kind of vision can achieve the Unity of the world. In this sense, the political, economic and cultural ideals of the Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui) are the most important radical attempt in history to rebuild a Pure Land in the here and now, showing that only the values of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity can achieve the Salvation and evolution of humankind.

 

The Maitriyana declares that Siddhartha Gautama is a spiritual hero with a revolutionary vision capable of leading the world through the darkest periods of history by developing a libertarian movement that rejects the capitalist order and simultaneously reforms Spirituality. The Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui) is never subordinated to governmental Power nor is limited to the nationalist compromise although it certainly has an independence attitude towards the political, economic and cultural oppression. Therefore, the metapolitics of Maitriyana remains ethically pure, correct, original and profound in the face of the status quo. This transnational historical Discourse is sustained in seeking the best interests of the community, so that the Free and Enlightened Being (Arhat-Bodhisattva) emerges as a socialist hero and as a source of spiritual achievements that may contribute not only to a country but also to the entire globalized world. Thus, it is doubtful that the spiritual master has a nationalist perspective, his complex and inclusive vision being something which makes him a citizen of the world. In fact, what underlies the practices and ideas of Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui) is an emptying from all ideology, being related to a Spiritual Reformism that develops a socially conscious Pathway.[12]

However, given that Maitriyana has a metapolitical perspective does not participate in partisan politics, since the latter is a dualistic instrument that serves the goals and interests of the mundane Power. Nor the Spirituality has a metaphysical agenda associated with religious beliefs. Thereby, the Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui) does not relate to the oppressive institutions of political, economic and cultural system. Evidently, this emptying of all ideology emphasizes the self-reflection and cultivation of revolutionary contemplation (kakumei-zen) within a trans-nationalist framework. The Maitriyana assumes a practice of libertarian meditation that primarily serves to a revolutionary Purpose (Dharma) of resistance against the materialistic Power, having the commitment and the transcultural attitude of not giving in to the oppression of the system. Therefore, the vision of the Free and Enlightened Being (Arhat-Bodhisattva) can be reconstructed as that of the archetype of the revolutionary subject, sharing wise and compassionate ideas to peoples around the world. Just like Han Yongun, the spiritual master teaches the emergence of self-reflection and the cultivation of a Spiritual Reformism with a self-critical attitude towards the illogical and superstitious religiosity.[13] Thus, the Free and Enlightened Being (Arhat-Bodhisattva) teaches the apprentice to become a civilized person (munmyong’in) who believes his existence depends on his own efforts and abilities, being responsible for everything what happens to him.

The Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui) then equates the virtue of self-determination with the virtues of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity, which are the guiding principles of Spiritual Reform of the world. For this reason the Maitriyana coincides with Han Yongun that religious recitation (yombultang) should be eliminated within the Buddhist Spirituality, since people tend to worship the image of Siddharta Gautama instead of seeking the Awakening (Bodhi) within themselves. Thus the spiritual master is against idolatry and superstition,[14] these practices of external faith being something that the Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui) seeks to vanish.[15] Actually, the individual must develop faith in oneself (chashinjok). In accordance with Han Yongun the Maitriyana states that the practice of adoration or prayer towards the supernatural powers of Gautama is a False Buddhism.[16] The practice of revolutionary contemplation (kakumei-zen) does not lead to the idea of God but it approximates the apprentice to his True Self. Thus the meta-religiosity or trans-faith has an analytical, existential libertarian function in the world, being a skilful means of Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui) to overcome the suffering of the people. This resistance (chohang) towards the cultural Discourse of Power is the best Way towards the social welfare, freeing the subject’s mind despite any adverse or oppressive circumstance. Through the libertarian meditation the apprentice can transform the world in a detached way, having spiritual fortitude to overcome poverty and suffering.

This practice of cultivation and strengthening of the Spirituality is the key factor to dealing and overcoming the problems of capitalist civilization.[17] From here it is understood the reason why the Maitriyana is a Radical Way which proposes a libertarian communist alternative, by promoting the peaceful resistance against the oppressive authorities. Based on the principle of return to the True Self as the best way of positioning in the world, the Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui) is more focused on the welfare of the people than in the struggle or conflict against the oppressor Power. This implies that the Cure (Nirvana) to the evils of society is nothing less than the spiritual empowerment. Only in this way a communist society can be developed successfully and without resentment towards the higher social classes, since the world revolution of the Maitriyana starts from the base  of the subject’s Awakening (Bodhi). Actually, by means of the revolutionary contemplation (kakumei-zen) the apprentice can understand that if he is poor and weak this is not due to the rich and powerful ones, it is because of his own choice and responsibility facing unhappiness.[18] This implies that there is always a possibility of fundamental change within the human being. Therefore, the Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui) argues that social transformation begins with oneself by overcoming the difficulties by being emptied of all illusory thinking and wrong conduct. Thus, the liberating effort of the individual is the most powerful tool for achieving social happiness. The practice of libertarian meditation is a self-reflection and self- responsibility which functions as a guiding principle for Spiritual Reformism of humanity, ethically guiding the people by teaching them a new way of living, thinking and acting in the world. Although the agony and suffering caused by others is indescribable, the Free and Enlightened Being (Arhat-Bodhisattva) shows that the path towards Liberation is a matter of self-reflection and self-criticism.[19] Facing the misery generated by the oppressive system, the Maitriyana has a predicament that works for the self-realization of the people and not for the resentment towards the oppressor, teaching that in order to achieve Freedom one must not destroy the enemy but rather reaching the Cure (Nirvana) of mind, transforming the own way of thinking and seeing life. Only this can bring transnational independence of the peoples, removing the fundamental psychological causes of capitalism which are attachment, aversion and unconsciousness. Even in the Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui) the elimination of capitalism is not considered the final solution, but rather the Awakening (Bodhi) of mind and society it is. At the same time, this implies that state oppression is ineffective and nonexistent if it does not count with the support of the community, so the people must simply wake up if they choose to be free and critical against the political, economic and cultural oppression of the dominant Power. Therefore, the Maitriyana never encourages to struggle violently against oppression and government domain, because it is adhered to analytical, existential and libertarian principles. This implies that the spiritual master seeks to motivate the people by rehabilitating their Intrinsic Liberty so that they achieve an attitude of psychological, philosophical and political independence towards their oppressor. Thereby, all colonial relationship is nothing more than the result of passivity and submission of the human being who is an agent of change when reaching the Cure (Nirvana), by realizing that both suffering and happiness are somewhat dependent on oneself. Thereby, the Free and Enlightened Being (Arhat-Bodhisattva) overtakes Master-Slave dialectic, not appealing to the guilt or the self-disgust, but rather to the ethical responsibility and the detachment towards the external Power.

The transnational ideas of Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui), focused on self-realization and self-transcendence of the apprentice, constitute an important alternative to the mere anti-capitalist vision, promoting an understanding of how to construct a better and post materialistic world. However, this does not imply a metaphysical view, because the Maitriyana transcends all dualism. Thus the spiritual master not only criticizes the monetary vision of life, but also to the religious fatalistic approach that believes that everything that happens is prepared by Heaven (ch’onmyong) or by Fate (p’alcha). Therefore, the Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui) coincides with Yi Kwangsu in the fact that superstitious beliefs should be discarded so that the people understand that they are the ones that determine their lives, having the possibility of happiness in their own hands through the responsibility. This is the revolutionary transcultural position of Maitriyana. From this perspective, the Free and Enlightened Beings (Arhats-Bodhisattvas) are the progenitors of the reconstruction of the world, arguing that the cultivation of ethical capacity and of the spiritual fortitude is indispensable for the Liberation of society. Even though this purpose takes a century in being achieved, certainly the metapolitical Way is the essential requirement to achieve it, because the spiritual values of responsibility and self-determination are the analytical and existential framework for sharing a transnational vision and achieve global goals for the whole humanity. Through the ethics of caring of oneself (chajo), the spiritual master proclaims a transnational and transcultural movement.

Consistent with Han Yongun, the Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui) does not focus on an isolated practice of society, promoting a Spiritual Reform of the contemporary world through the Awakening (Bodhi) and the Liberation of the ordinary people. This involves applying the thinking of Siddharta Gautama into the social practice, actively participating in the transformation of the economy, politics and culture. However, this does not necessarily mean that the Free and Enlightened Being (Arhat-Bodhisattva) participates in local or national politics, since his identity and ideals are decidedly global. Thus, the individual is encouraged not only to serve his nation, but to do the best for the whole world because the true identity of Being is the Interexistence with all beings. The spiritual master is then an independence activist (tongnip chisa) but of the entire humanity, not being able to be pigeonholed with the mere label of anticapitalist.

The libertarian voice of Maitriyana defies all governmental conventionalism through the metapolitical Vehicle of the Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui). In this sense, as Yongun Han established, the True Spirituality is only possible when it is free from governmental interference and restrictions.[20] The metapolitical Purpose (Dharma) of Maitriyana is not only criticizing the governmental control over the libertarian commune (Sangha), but also promoting a community administration free from state regulation. Therefore, the Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui) is separated from both the nationalist and imperialist politics, the Spirituality being the guiding principle for the present and future world.[21] The Maitriyana is then transnational and simultaneously anti-imperial, being an Integrative and Reconciliatory Spirituality besides being the Ultimate Truth that encompasses, surpasses and transcends all ideologies and Discourses.[22] This is because the Free and Enlightened Being (Arhat-Bodhisattva) perceives the Buddha-nature or sense of equality (p’yongdung) that underlies all beings. Therefore, the Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui) transcends the dualism between spiritualism (yusimnon) and materialism (yumullon), something that can be perceived in the Purpose (Dharma) of Salvation of the world through Compassion (chabi), Universal Love (Pagae) and Mutual Assistance (Hoje). This demonstrates that the Maitriyana is the Perennial or Transcendental Buddhism whilst it moves away from the unreal and metaphysical, by encompassing and reconciling all the psychological, philosophical and political ideas, so it is the supreme guidance for all things.[23] As a metapolitics the Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui) has a leading position with a fundamental importance for the survival and evolution of humanity, so that nationalism is not an important issue in the spiritual master’s life. Like the vision of Han Yongun, the Maitriyana is beyond any political ideology, especially imperialism and nationalism. However, the countercultural idea of the Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui) is that Awakened Ones (Buddhas) such as Gautama, Confucius and Jesus have a compassionate wisdom (karuna-prajña) and a heroic love that impels them to desire saving the entire humanity. In this sense, the Free and Enlightened Being (Arhat-Bodhisattva) is a Transcendent Saviour and not a mere politician, because his universal revolution is transnational,[24] working for the welfare of all the peoples on Earth (Gaia) above the racial and national boundaries. Even though the spiritual master is dressed and talks in accordance to local customs, his Purpose (Dharma) is universal, since he has an absolute commitment to the mission of Salvation of all beings, the same as Gautama and Jesus were not concerned in saving only to the Indians and Jews respectively.

Consistent with Han Yongun the Maitriyana establishes that the Awakened One (Buddha) is eternally devoted to the revolutionary change of the whole Cosmos and never to a nationalist movement concerned about the welfare of a particular nation. This means that the figure of the Free and Enlightened Being (Arhat-Bodhisattva) as a patriotic hero of one country should be replaced by that of an international and transnational Saviour who is only loyal to the universal vision of compassionate wisdom (karuna-prajña).[25] Thus, the teachings of Gautama were not only metapsychological and metaphilosophical but also metapolitical, always showing the apprentice the Way towards the Real. Therefore, the revolutionary contemplation (kakumei-zen) is the better way of living the existence. Although according to the capitalist system the spiritual master may be considered as someone useless for the modern world, the Libertarian Spirituality certainly is the best way possible to make changes in society by helping the oppressed of all peoples. In this sense, the ideals of Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui) as pacifism, human rights communism, education and ecology are fundamental activities that overcome any political ideology, whether imperialist or nationalist, since the Spirituality should never be allied to the dominant government position. While the economic, political and cultural Power of capitalist civilization considers that Spirituality is an irrelevant and even meaningless matter for modern life, instead the Maitriyana claims that partisan or governmental local policy is the one that has little importance for the postmodern world, since the individual should commit to global interests and objectives. The Revolution (Hyongmyong) of Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui) does not only talk about metapolitics, but also about how to transform the inner world and the world of ideas. Therefore, the nationalist interests are not something urgent in the eyes of the Free and Enlightened Being (Arhat-Bodhisattva), because in fact those interests are considered as aggressive, blind and controlling of the others.[26]

Just like Han Yongun the Maitriyana then criticizes the fact that Buddhist Spirituality may be used as a political tool for supporting imperialism or any government, so that the Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui) is positioned as a Universal Spirituality with a wide vision and more fundamental than the traditional political ideologies. Furthermore, the libertarian meditation is also presented as a radical anarchist practice with the crucial function of criticizing and rectifying the wrong direction of imperialism and nationalism, by inspiring people to go beyond these systems – including the authoritarian communist – through the self Liberation and the care of oneself.[27]

In accordance with Yi Kwangsu, the Maitriyana seeks to transform the whole world into a Pure Land of direct democracy, pacifism, mutual aid (sangho pujo) and mutual love (sang’ae). All the great spiritual masters of history, as Gautama, Confucius and Jesus taught the values of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity, transmitting Love (sarang) and Salvation to all of humanity. Continuing with the economic, political and cultural vision of Gautama the Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui) claims that the ideal lifestyle is Detachment from the accumulation of private property along with the opposition to injustice and inequality, by sharing ideas which are similar to libertarian or anarchist communism. Thus the Maitriyana has a socio-political vision that guides the world towards the Spiritual Revolution which, as Emmanuel Mounier pointed out, shall be economic, political and structural or shall not be. However, this not implies falling into the ideologies of imperialism and nationalism. Therefore, the Free and Enlightened Being (Arhat-Bodhisattva) has the superpower of preserving the spiritual identity of the peoples, trying that this one is not destroyed by the capitalist civilization. Since Spirituality is the most important activity of life, it should never be subordinated to materialism or to the government.

The Spiritual Reformism of the Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui) is a trans-economic, metapolitical and countercultural position facing the mundane authorities, insisting on the global pacifism as a way of creating the justice of future in the here and now, which complies with the Purpose (Dharma) of human life. Thus, the Maitriyana is really a political Counter-Discourse of anti-imperialist and post-nationalist characteristics, resorting to the image of the Awakened One (Buddha) as a pacifist hero who saves the world through compassionate wisdom (karuna-prajña), the great goodness (taeja taebi) and temperance (inyok), courageously guiding humanity towards the Cure (Nirvana) from evil.[28] For that reason, both Gautama and Jesus have been popularly considered as Saviours of all beings, always moving forward and never retreating on the revolutionary Way of the Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui). This obviously implies assuming the original Purpose (Dharma) of the True Self by overcoming malignant events (map’yon) of war, injustice, ignorance and contamination. These obstacles are confronted by the revolutionary contemplation (kakumei-zen) and the rightness of the spiritual master, since ethics of Detachment is the best way to have courage and bravery in the diversity. Following the example of Gautama and Jesus, the apprentice can defeat the internal obstacles with great heroism, spiritual prowess and daring effort (yongmaeng chongjin).[29] Thereby, the subject should re-experience the conquest of Gautama over the force of death (mara), even coming to be willing to not to sleep for seven days until not reaching the Awakening (Bodhi).[30] In this sense, the Maitriyana repositions to Gautama and Jesus as supreme incarnations of the archetype of the spiritual warrior who heroically defeats the enemy of wickedness that is selfishness, dualism and consumerism.[31] However, this does not imply associating the Buddhist Spirituality with war and militarism as the Japanese imperialism and its holy war against China and the West erroneously has done.[32] Thus the Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui) is the Salvation of the values of world peace, social justice, cultural development and terrestrial well-being. The libertarian meditation emphasizes the true spirit of internationalist pacifism, by rediscovering Gautama as the heroic archetype of ethics who peacefully conquers the evil. In contrast to Harada Daiun Sogaku, the Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui) considers that it is impossible to know the Analytical-Existential-Libertarian Discourse (Buddha-Dharma-Sangha) through violence.[33] The heroic act of non-violence is a subversive Discourse that leaves the mark of eternal life in history, representing transnational loyalty and mystical devotion to the Pure Land, which is the attainment of the global Great Awakening (Maha Bodhi). Thus, the Free and Enlightened Being (Arhat-Bodhisattva) emerges as the singular conqueror of a new planetary civilization, being defiant in the face of the dominant ideologies and governments of the world. Although this Liberation may seem an unattainable or utopian ideal, the spiritual master has an unwavering engagement with this Purpose (Dharma) of Salvation and Evolution of humanity. Thus the apprentice must embark on the revolutionary contemplation (kakumei-zen) with solidarity, Mindfulness, tenacity and compassionate wisdom (karuna-prajña) in order to achieve the Cure (Nirvana) of the inner and outer world. Therefore, without the virtue of libertarian meditation is impossible to be successful in any social objective, because this practice allows overcoming adversity and oppression.

The poetic expressions of the Free and Enlightened Being (Arhat-Bodhisattva) are a symbol of tenacity, perseverance and courage in the subversive Way of Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui), by overcoming adversity and difficulties that emerge when people is resistant to change. Precisely the revolutionary contemplation (kakumei-zen) encourages the individual to live as if they were the last five minutes of life, as this ethical rule is directed to the sure success.[34] From this it emerges a critique of the political leaders of the world because of their lack of consistency and spiritual commitment before impermanence. Thus, only a patriot (chisa) of the world goes beyond seeking security and personal interests, by living intensely as if he would have few minutes of existence. In this sense, the Maitriyana includes knowledges of many liberals, communists, anarchists and patriotic activists in order to ethically lead the world in spite of the unfavourable economic, political and cultural circumstances of the capitalist civilization. Therefore, the same way as Han Yongun, the spiritual master usually considers governmental politicians as selfish, whimsical, coward and opportunistic for seeking their own interests and security instead of working for the good of the people. Instead, the Free and Enlightened Being (Arhat-Bodhisattva) is a transnational hero because he embodies the spirit and practice of the libertarian meditation, criticizing the traditional leaders for abandoning their founding objectives and for not having Sense of Purpose (Dharma) to cope with the obstacles and difficulties. The apprentice should not think then about his own benefit but about seeking the Awakening (Bodhi) of others, because abnegation and Detachment from oneself is an attitude of Cure (Nirvana). Only this mode of being overcomes all temptations and humiliations of Power. The critique of the state politics – imperialist or nationalist – performed by the Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui) is an evidence of a libertarian and internationalist commitment to the human rights Communism which is a supra-ideological Counter-Discourse against the repression of capitalism and authoritarianism. This implies that the metapolitics of Maitriyana transcends both the savage capitalism and the dictatorial communism.

The Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui) offers many alternatives to the way of understanding society, denouncing as wrong to the materialist perspective whose ideas of progress are based on monetarism. As the life of the spiritual master demonstrates, the essence of the libertarian ideas of Maitriyana is not an anticapitalist calling but a self criticism of mind, by banishing the causes of the privately owned greed which are attachment, aversion and unconsciousness. Under the influence of Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui) it is established a particular Communist mode of social organization which abandons greed, hatred and delusion of economics, politics and culture. Thus, the Free and Enlightened Being (Arhat-Bodhisattva) is a superhero with an original internationalism without parallel, never encouraging the rancour and hostility towards the oppressive Power. In this sense, the ethics of the Middle Way converts Maitriyana not into an anti-capitalist movement but rather into a post-capitalist movement, having the fundamental intention of producing a Counter-Discourse that is subversive before the materialistic relations, liberating the mind from the shackles of the dependency and alienation.

For the Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui) the spiritual is the transcendental matter of its entire metapolitical Vehicle, detaching itself from the socio-political ideologies of imperialism and nationalism to articulate the mystical ideal with libertarian communist goals. This implies that the Buddhist Spirituality should never be subordinated to governmental policy, but it should always transcend it. Although the revolutionary contemplation (kakumei-zen) is not metaphysical, certainly it is not mundane either. Therefore, the same as Han Yongun, Maitriyana considers the Buddhist Spirituality should be the guide for all economic, political and cultural activities, and never the reverse.[35] The Buddhist Socialism (Pulgyo Sahoejuui) is then a Way able to ethically reinvent the world in order that it works with a supportive attitude towards peace, justice, education and ecology. Thus, resistance and collaboration coexist in the life of the spiritual master, whose subversive message helps to build a better society. In this manner, the Maitriyana will have an important position in the history of the world, leaving a legacy capable of achieving the Evanescence (Nirvana) of the ills afflicting humanity. This is because the Free and Enlightened Being (Arhat-Bodhisattva) is a complex spiritual superhero and an eminent leader for the future world, by reminding the peoples that there is a mode to live in society which is alternative and more correct or healthy.

 

 

[1] Vladimir Tikhonov, Han Yongun´s Buddhist Socialism in the 1920s-1930s.

[2] Vladimir Tikhonov, Han Yongun´s Buddhist Socialism in the 1920s-1930s.

[3] Han Yongun, On the revitalization of Korean Buddhism.

[4] Han Yongun, On the revitalization of Korean Buddhism.

[5] Avatamsaka Sutra.

[6] Han Yongun, On the revitalization of Korean Buddhism.

[7] Han Yongun, The Buddhism I believe in.

[8] Han Yongun, What happens with the life after the death.

[9] Han Yongun, Sakyamuni’s spirit: dialogue with a journalist.

[10] Stephen Large, Buddhism, Socialism and Protest in pre-war Japan: the career of Seno´o Giro.

[11] Han Yongun, Communism and Anti-religious Ideal.

[12] Pori Park, A Korean Buddhist response to modernity.

[13] Han Yongun, A treatise on the reformation of Korean Buddhism.

[14] Jung-Shim Lee, A doubtful national hero: Han Yongun´s Buddhist Nationalism revisited.

[15] Han Yongun, The Buddhism I believe in.

[16] Jung-Shim Lee, A doubtful national hero: Han Yongun´s Buddhist Nationalism revisited.

[17] Jung-Shim Lee, A doubtful national hero: Han Yongun´s Buddhist Nationalism revisited.

[18] Han Yongun, Autorreflexión.

[19] Han Yongun, Autorreflexión.

[20] Jung-Shim Lee, A doubtful national hero: Han Yongun´s Buddhist Nationalism revisited.

[21] Han Yongun, The Buddhism I believe in.

[22] Jung-Shim Lee, A doubtful national hero: Han Yongun´s Buddhist Nationalism revisited.

[23] Jung-Shim Lee, A doubtful national hero: Han Yongun´s Buddhist Nationalism revisited.

[24] Han Yongun, The spirit of Shakyamuni.

[25] Jung-Shim Lee, A doubtful national hero: Han Yongun´s Buddhist Nationalism revisited.

[26] Jung-Shim Lee, A doubtful national hero: Han Yongun´s Buddhist Nationalism revisited.

[27] Jung-Shim Lee, A doubtful national hero: Han Yongun´s Buddhist Nationalism revisited.

[28] Han Yongun, Point of Departure.

[29] Han Yongun, Endeavor.

[30] R. E. Buswell, The Zen monastic experience: Buddhist practice in Contemporary Korea.

[31] Han Yongun, Great strength.

[32] R. H. Sharf, The Zen of Japanese Nationalism.

[33] Brian Daizen Victoria, Zen at war.

[34] Han Yongun, The last Five minutes.

[35] Jung-Shim Lee, A doubtful national hero: Han Yongun´s Buddhist Nationalism revisited.

 

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