Independence Dialogue with Taiwan


Buddhist Anarchism: the Awakening of the Revolutionary Utopia

The Maitriyana is the central figure in the creation of a Postmodern Spirituality, engaging itself in a radical fight movement against the four evils of the world: war, injustice, ignorance and pollution. This revolutionary perspective of Buddhist Anarchism significantly represents the culmination of 2600 years of development and spiritual evolution of human being. In accordance with the Master Taixu, in the Maitriyana there is a synthesis of the Libertarian Discourse, which is nothing but the surprising convergence of the revolutionary traditions or narratives of Gautama and Kropotkin.[1]

Since it operates beyond ideology, politics and religion, the Buddhist Anarchism is a form of higher socialist thought with the ability to reveal the future of humanity in the here and now. Thus, the Free and Enlightened Being (Arhat-Bodhisattva) is one of the most important leaders of the world, by being the very centre of the spiritual reformation of society on its entrance into the socialist era. Thus, the spiritual master is responsible for key innovations for the Salvation of the world, simultaneously redirecting the different traditions towards the development and practice of Humanitarian Spirituality with a commitment to the world. Therefore, by being beyond metaphysics and nihilism, the Middle Way of Maitriyana is the torchbearer of Buddhism of human life (rensheng fojiao).[2] This implies that the Purpose (Dharma) of Buddhist Anarchism is properly defined as the construction of a Pure Earth (Renjian Jingtu) or Kingdom of Righteousness in the world because the teachings of Gautama and Kropotkin aim at both the Liberation of the subject and of the whole society. Just like Master Taixu, the Maitriyana prepares and trains a generation of thinkers capable of ethically influencing humanity, confronting the mundane Power through the the strength of compassionate wisdom (karuna-prajna). The Gautama-Kropotkin articulation positions the Buddhist Anarchism as a supra-intellectual formation that surpasses all previous forms of socialist revolution, but also shows a profound dedication to radically reform the spiritual tradition. In the same way as Master Taixu played a significant role in the history of the Buddhist radical movement in China, the Maitriyana starts a metapolitical revolution open to all humanity, since it embodies the Purpose (Dharma) of the interests for the general welfare of the world. The Free and Enlightened Being (Arhat-Bodhisattva) is then a crucial figure in the formation and development of supra-intellectual thinking to a free and enlightened society, by examining global problems through the radical loupe of revolutionary contemplation (kakumeizen). This demonstrates that the Buddhist Anarchism, by means of the Gautama-Kropotkin articulation is a very important chapter in the threshold of post modernity, recognizing that society is the product of historical forces that can be transformed through the practice of libertarian meditation. In the metapolitics of Maitriyana, the Cure (Nirvana) of society becomes the primary project of Spirituality. Therefore, the teachings of Master Taixu reveal the surprising concordances between the libertarian projects of Gautama and Kropotkin,[3] by founding an Analytical Existential Libertarian Discourse (Buddha-Dharma-Sangha) capable of achieving the Great Awakening (Maha Bodhi) of the world.

The Buddhist Anarchism is a radical metapolitical thought but it is also a spiritual practice for the daily life, by training the apprentice by means of the revolutionary contemplation (kakumeizen) on issues such as the cause of the evils of the world and also on its possible antidotes. Indeed, the subject can achieve the Cure (Nirvana) after experiencing the reformist vision of the compassionate wisdom (karuna-prajna), by achieving the true realization of the Purpose (Dharma). This makes that the Maitriyana appreciates the revolutionary contributions of Kang Youwei, Tan Sitong and Sifu Liu,[4] teaching the apprentice to move away from a life of seclusion in order to trigger the Desire of saving all beings, which clearly cultivates the Socially Engaged Spirituality.[5] The original Purpose (Dharma) of the spiritual master is to create a communal society (sangha) based on the education of peak knowledge (satori). In this sense, like Master Taixu’s work, a school of Reconciliatory Spirituality is a revolutionary alliance (Tongmeng Hui), functioning as a base of operations for the progressive and radical development of the teachings of Gautama, Bakunin, Proudhon, Kropotkin and Marx,[6] who are undoubtedly the lantern for a new century (Xin shiji). Thus, the Buddhist Anarchism can be addressed through social democracy,[7] by valuing the libertarian vision of Equality (Heng bao) and Natural Justice (Tianyi bao) which was present at the values of ancient cultural traditions of India and China, but they later have been lost in time. This explains the reason why the Maitriyana is iconoclastic and cosmopolitan, being involved in a global revolutionary movement that seeks to liberate the peoples from governmental or religious oppression. The centre of the radical vision of Buddhist Anarchism is the development of the Awakening (Bodhi) of society, by promoting a post-utopian revolution founded on the libertarian principles of teachings from Gautama and Kropotkin.[8] In this sense, the work of the Free and Enlightened Being (Arhat-Bodhisattva) is the triumph of libertarian socialist interpretation, which was the most important radical and revolutionary discourse of China in 1920.[9]

Despite the fact that being a follower of Maitriyana implies the possibility of being killed by the mundane Power, since governments often order arrests or killings to those who want to build a better society, becoming a martyr is not inconvenient for the subject who genuinely wishes to save the world. Therefore, the spiritual master is not involved in mundane politics, although certainly never loses the revolutionary and radical vision of the Libertarian Spirituality, which is the emergence of Buddhist Anarchism. Here, the experience of peak knowledge (satori) is the climax of the revolutionary utopianism.[10] Indeed, the Free and Enlightened Being (Arhat-Bodhisattva) is intensely involved in the recovery of a lost communism, which essentially is nothing but the harmony and interexistence between human beings and the Earth (Gaia). The process of Cure (Nirvana) of society then produces the declaration of independence of the peoples against capitalist and materialistic civilization, at the same time it is opened the Path towards the timely establishment of a global democratic republic unprecedented in history of humanity. This type of planetary community is a society with advanced ethics, so the Maitriyana is the most influential libertarian group in the construction of a conscious world. However, in order to carry out the libertarian socialist Purpose (Dharma) founded by Gautama and Kropotkin the apprentice must be ideologically empty, being in favour of an approach open to constant revolution. This involves not to aim at the mere objective of state communism, but to embrace the vision of pure socialism (Chuncui shehuizhuyi) that is inherent in the Buddhist Anarchism. Thus, the metapolitics of Maitriyana does not aim at grow rapidly in the number of members or followers, because it is not a mundane political party, but rather it seeks to answer the call for the sake of the community, such as Master Taixu did with his positions and revolutionary ideas.[11] The spiritual master is then a prominent leader of the pure socialist vision, transmitting the Non-governmentalism or Buddhist Anarchism (wuzhengfuzhuyi fo) as the only platform for the Salvation of the world. Thus, the central idea of this thought are the three voids (san wu): absence of state, absence of religion and absence of family, because these three institutions host oppressive culture, false dualism and alienating hierarchy, so that by achieving the evanescence of these evils it can be established a new society based on the spiritual values of Liberty (Ziyou), Equality (Pingdeng) and Fraternity (Bo’ai).[12] In accordance with Master Taixu, the Maitriyana transmits this radical vision because it is the best way to build a revolutionary utopian future, affirming a profound disagreement towards the capitalist civilization and simultaneously setting the groundwork for the establishment of a global democratic republic able to bring hope to future generations. This means that the Buddhist Anarchism is a step on the Path towards progress and spiritual evolution of the world, overcoming the frustrations caused by the lack of ethical ideals of governments that only aim to concentrate Power in their own hands. Therefore, the libertarian vision of Free and Enlightened Being (Arhat-Bodhisattva) uses to consider presidents as dictators rather than representatives of the people, not being accustomed to reject a specific president but rather to the government itself.[13] The cause of disillusionment that the peoples often experience towards their governments is because the governors are nothing more than opportunists seeking fame, power or money,[14] instead of being unselfish heroes and humble revolutionaries who work for the happiness and welfare of the society.

The Maitriyana claims that governments’ failures are not due to the characteristics of the individuals who compose it, because rather every form of government is inherently oppressive. Thus, like the position of Master Taixu, the Buddhist Anarchism is a form of pure socialism which differs strongly from statist and authoritarian communism (shehuizhuyi guojia pai), considering that Liberty (Ziyou) has to be both the ultimate goal and the very Path towards the evolution of humanity, because both the means and the ends should be consistent with one another.[15] Therefore, democracy and liberty of expression are transcendental elements in implementing the metapolitical ideas of the spiritual master, whose Purpose (Dharma) is always liberating others in a correct and adequate manner, instead of appealing to the oppressive machinery of the State as Yuan Shikai did.[16] This harmony between forms and objectives is a prominent feature of Maitriyana and its articulation Gautama-Kropotkin, which teaches the apprentice to develop Consciousness (Liangxin), Liberty and Equality (ziyou pingdeng) as well as the Great Unity (Datong).

The commitment of Buddhist Anarchism is clearly to share a comprehensive and systematic manifesto that shows the path towards a better world by means of pacifism, social justice, education and ecology, which are practical ways towards the Awakening (Bodhi) of the people. This work is the eternal great passion of the Free and Enlightened Being (Arhat-Bodhisattva), even knowing that it might be a quest that may remain inconclusive (weiwan). In this sense, just like the vision of Master Taixu, the Maitriyana is a radical spiritual thought that combines the profound teachings of Gautama and Kropotkin with the Purpose (Dharma) to achieve the Cure (Nirvana) from the four evils of the world that are war, inequality, ignorance and pollution, all of these being something that emerges directly from the oppressive structures of family, religion and the State, which usually establish the status quo of selfishness, dualism and consumerism. In effect, society tends to differentiation by means of awarding categories, rubrics or status. Thus, the spiritual master helps the individual to disidentify and become a being without clothes by reaching his full potential through this new spiritual education detached from state authority. In contrast to the mundane Power and its exploitation of people, the Buddhist Anarchism really seeks the Liberation of society in the face of the illusions of nationalism and imperialism, claiming a rebellious and transforming doctrine that establishes the Kingdom of Righteousness in the here and now for all beings. In accordance with Taixu Master, the Maitriyana argues that the transition from monarchy to republic system has only changed the symbolic surface of society, keeping intact in the depth the underlying oppressive dynamics that do nothing but take away the people’s Power of Choice, positioning governors who only follow their own ambition through corruption, conflict and violence.[17] Therefore, the critique of the State performed by the Buddhist Anarchism is also extended to the family system (zongfa), since both use hierarchical categories and names that oppressively define the status and social relationships of human beings, by putting shackles (jie) to Liberty (Ziyou), Equality (Pingdeng) and Fraternity (Bo’ai). From this evil system which is family the dualism and the opposition between the oppressed and the oppressor arises, although society often considers this system as natural and good.[18] Thus, the Maitriyana has the libertarian concern for the overcoming of the social division,[19] which is the origin of inequality and the great warlike conflicts. The establishment of the evanescence of state and family hierarchies frees the apprentice from the status or role, by curing then the social division of humanity, because without the limits or bondage defined by the State, religion and family, the subject is able to initiate a collapse process of the system of inner and outer alienation. Given that the divisions among the peoples lead to conflict and war, the Great Unity (Datong) promoted by the Buddhist Anarchism is the Only Way (Ekayana) for world peace and the transformation of history. Indeed, the revolutionary metapolitical project of Maitriyana does no more than unhide the fundamental state of Liberation and Integration of humanity that is usually hidden by selfishness, dualism and consumerism. But when the apprentice becomes detached from these evils or ties, then he can understand the Liberty (Ziyou), Equality (Pingdeng) and Fraternity (Bo’ai) underlying all the differences. In concordance with Master Taixu, the Buddhist Anarchism denominates State, religion and family as malignant systems (e zhidu) or malignant customs (e Xiguan) which not only represent bondage but also a false morality (wei daode). This implies that the Free and Enlightened Being (Arhat-Bodhisattva) denounces the morality of society as a mechanism of protection of evil, like happens with the case of political loyalty to the president on something that is merely complicity and the search for the own survival, or also as is the case of police and their commitment to the oppressive laws permitting the killing of people.[20] Therefore, the righteousness or ethics of Detachment becomes the Path of purification from the tyrannical evils of State, religion and family. Faced with the oppressive Power and false morality the spiritual master establishes that these ones are caused by greed, hatred and delusion which are characteristic of the level of ordinary mind. Thus, the Cure (Nirvana) of society occurs only when the subject has been de-identified from attachment, aversion and unconsciousness.

The Maitriyana teaches that the true nature of consciousness is the Awakening (Bodhi), so tath the ordinary state of consciousness (OSC) or non-enlightened mind is really a veil that hides the Truth of Being: the apprentice is essentially free and responsible for his actions. In this sense, the great ignorance or unconsciousness (avidya) combated by the libertarian meditation is that which hides this Purpose (Dharma) of Liberation. Thus, just like the Master Taixu, the Buddhist Anarchism claims that the ordinary consciousness is structured around the mind of selfish greed (siyu xin) that represses the mind of fraternal love (Bo’ai xin), the latter being an altruistic and reconciliatory mind. Therefore, in the Analytical-Existential-Libertarian Discourse (Buddha-Dharma-Sangha) they are transmitted the spiritual revolutionary ideals of Liberty (Ziyou), Equality (Pingdeng) and Fraternity (Bo’ai), which are inherent in the unborn consciousness or True Self which is repressed by the Ego. The Maitriyana claims that the fundamental structure or essence (ti) of the mind is integrative, although the ordinary consciousness certainly is divided into its daily function (yong), where the mind of selfish greed (siyu xin) is influenced by the evils of status, material gain (li) and sexual gender (se), that are reinforced each other.[21] Therefore, the Buddhist Anarchism faces the cognitive causes of the evils of the world, such as attachment, aversion and unconsciousness, but it also denounces social manifestations of greed, hatred and delusion, which simultaneously reinforce the cognitive causes.[22] However, like Master Taixu, the Gautama-Kropotkin articulation recognizes that there are innate spiritual tendencies towards sociability and brotherhood, reaffirming an anthropological vision which considers that mutual support (sangha) is the dharmic nature of humanity, despite it is usually found repressed or distorted by the authoritarian structures of State, religion and family. The Maitriyana tradition refers to this inherent sociability of human being as interexistence, which is the analytical-existential-libertarian basis of friendship, detachment and Desire for self-transcendence. In this sense, the Ego and the mundane Power hide and oppress the mind of fraternal love (Bo’ai xin) which is a characteristic of the individual,[23] but it is dis-occulted at the stadium of Cure (Nirvana). Certainly, the general dynamics of the evanescence of suffering consists of three steps: first, evanesce attachment, identification and the repetition of the frustration cycle; second, evanesce the objects of ordinary thinking; third, evanesce ignorance or unconsciousness that represses the structure of the awakened mind.[24] For the Free and Enlightened Being (Arhat-Bodhisattva) the false social morality transmitted by the structures of kinship repress the mind of fraternal love (Bo’ai xin) which is the deepest level of Being, by establishing a system of divisions and limitations that gives beginning to the polarity between individual and object. But if the apprentice becomes detached from these primitive systems of dualism then he can evolve his consciousness by growing and developing as a superhuman. Thus, the spiritual master is a subject who has emptied himself from kinship structures and false morality, by liberating himself from the oppressive institutions that are often seen by people as a natural condition of life, as State, religion and family, in order to be replaced by the compassionate wisdom (karuna-prajna) of the Analytical Existential-Libertarian Discourse (Buddha-Dharma-Sangha). Therefore, the Buddhist Anarchism considers the Liberation as the true glory and happiness of the human being, because it is disidentified from illusion and the distorted visions (diandao) promoted by society,[25] connecting himself with a clear understanding of the Real. Instead, the apprentice who becomes attached or is identified with the status quo or prevailing social Discourse has a false morality or ethical disability which makes he confuses as something natural the suffering with happiness and the evil with good. But when the subject perceives things as they really are, then he commits to undertake a process of purification and transformation of internal and external world, creating a Pure Earth (Renjian Jingtu) after evanescing the four evils of war, injustice, ignorance and pollution. Only through the Awakening (Bodhi) humanity can progress and create a libertarian socialist civilization based on the Purpose (Dharma) of the great openness of human knowledge (wenming Jinbu Zhishi Dakai).[26] The Free and Enlightened Being (Arhat-Bodhisattva) is part of a spiritual vanguard which perceives the evil and oppressive systems as they are, working for the Cure (Nirvana) of civilization (wenming) as the great Master Taixu did. The Gautama-Kropotkin articulation of Maitriyana shows the possibility of the postmodern event of a better world through the Analytical Existential Libertarian Discourse (Buddha-Dharma-Sangha). This implies a postmodern pedagogical process that is something historic, because it is a self-civilising project.[27] In this context, the great openness of human knowledge (wenming Jinbu Zhishi Dakai) is the emergence of peak knowledge (satori) in the whole society, achieving the evolution of human being over the support of self-knowledge. Undoubtedly, this libertarian socialist understanding is the transhistorical development of Buddhist Anarchism, coinciding with the Master Taixu in the ultimate goal of the event of a free and enlightened society through an amplified and higher consciousness.[28] Even though the mind of selfish greed (siyu xin) is very strong in the ordinary consciousness and has attachment to the malevolent social system of the status quo, the mind of fraternal love (Bo’ai xin) is always present latently together with the utopian possibility of building a better world.[29] In accordance with Master Taixu, in the vision of Maitriyana, if the human being evanesces the forces of attachment, aversion and unconsciousness within his mind, then he can completely eliminate his corresponding oppressive social systems based on greed, hatred and delusion, which will leave place to the natural event of a dharmic civilization in the Great Unity (Datong) represented by the spiritual values of Liberty (Ziyou), Equality (Pingdeng) and Fraternity (Bo’ai), by erecting then a society based on peace, justice, wisdom and harmony. In this revolutionary utopian model of Pure Earth (Renjian Jingtu) or Kingdom of Satisfaction (Sukkhavati), as Marx and Taixu have pointed out, every human being will be respected according to their abilities and needs,[30] having vanished the evil and oppressive systems of the State, religion and family. Only this kind of radical evanescence of the evils of society can overcome the false morality, discrimination and conflict among peoples. This implies that humanity evolves only through Liberty (Ziyou), Equality (Pingdeng) and Fraternity (Bo’ai), following the ideals of libertarian communist system of the Buddhist Anarchism. Under the guidance of the spiritual master it is uncovered the intrinsic goodness of human being, by allowing not only a psychic and social welfare but also by the progressive implementation of the post-utopian achievement of Salvation of the world or Great Awakening (Maha Bodhi) of all beings of Earth (Gaia).[31] Like the radical vision of Master Taixu the Maitriyana points out that the achievement of Salvation of society will be attained by means of two processes: by making emerge mind of fraternal love (Bo’ai xin) in the inner world, and by implementing the Buddhist Anarchism in the outer world.[32] Thus, the Free and Enlightened Being (Arhat-Bodhisattva) affirms that the apprentice must overcome the false morality, the malignant social systems and the concept of kinship, but always doing this in conjunction with the liberation of mind of fraternal love (bo ‘ai xin) which transforms subjectivity. This process is the construction of a new civilization (wenming) based on the education of the peak knowledge (satori) rather than the traditional civilization (wenming) based on parental education. In this sense, the Maitriyana advocates for the elimination of traditional parenting, working towards a socialist system in which the whole society is responsible for the education of transcendental values of all human beings from their childhood up to their old age. Instead, in capitalist civilization children are considered a property of parents or family, rather than considering them as they are inherently free beings. Thus, Buddhist Anarchism seeks the disappearance of the notion of self-interest, by allowing the manifestation of fraternal and communitarian love.[33] In accordance with  Master Taixu, the approach of Maitriyana is a dismantlement of the oppressive structures of State, religion and family, by replacing them with the libertarian structures of the Awakened One (Buddha), the Purpose (Dharma) and the Commune (Sangha). Given that when knowing the causes of suffering the apprentice is able to eliminate it, the spiritual master affirms the need that children are raised by the whole community, which must share the resources in pursuit of a common goal, by returning their true fraternal nature to humanity. This is possible thanks to the advent of the libertarian socialist civilization and the peak knowledge (satori) opened by the Gautama-Kropotkin articulation of Buddhist Anarchism which demonstrates that the capitalist status quo is a perverse order. Therefore, the Maitriyana works for the Cure (Nirvana) of mind and society, simultaneously and dialectically establishing a psychism and an interlinking system of a wise and compassionate nature. Thus, the restoration of mind of reconciliation (Bo’ai xin) is considered as a cause, while the Buddhist Anarchism is the fruit as well as the guidance (Qiandao).[34] This reflects the interdependence and profound consonance between means and ends in the theory and practice of Maitriyana because in order to establish the evolution of a better world it is counterproductive appealing to coercive or authoritarian resources that do nothing but perpetuate the old structures of oppression. The Buddhist Anarchism is then a libertarian revolutionary movement that always respects the essential Liberty (Ziyou) of Self, working all the time for the restoration of the fundamental nature of Awakening (Bodhi) in all humanity, which is both the means as the end of the revolutionary contemplation (kakumei-zen). In accordance with Master Taixu, the Maitriyana affirms that in the contemporary civilization the peak knowledge (Satori) has not been open to the whole society, which is regulated by a false morality and by limiting concepts such as kinship and self-interest. Thus, the Free and Enlightened Being (Arhat-Bodhisattva) is revolutionary because he opens a direct way towards the peak knowledge (Satori) for all peoples, making the reconciliatory mind (xin Bo’ai) emerges in order to build a fraternal social system. When the subject becomes detached from self-interest both to himself and to the family, only then he can fully develop the reconciliatory mind of fraternal love (Bo’ai xin), whose consequence is the evanescence of the oppressive and malignant illusions of State and Capitalism: the spontaneous implementation of Buddhist Anarchism.[35] According to the Maitriyana, this is because there is a process of mutual reinforcement, because like attachment, aversion and unconsciousness are mental forces which feed back the oppressive social systems, which in turn also strengthen these psychic forces, in the same way the reconciled mind (Bo’ai xin) feeds back the implementation of Buddhist Anarchism, and this one, in turn, mutually interpenetrates and constitutes such mind of fraternal love (Bo’ai xin).[36] This implies that, like the Master Taixu, Maitriyana affirms that Cure (Nirvana) of mind is a process similar to the revolutionary utopian project of the Awakening (Bodhi) of the Pure Earth (Renjian Jingtu) or Kingdom of Liberation (Jietuo) in the world. Consequently, the model of ideal or post-utopian society of the Buddhist Anarchism is the virtue of the nature (xing) of the fraternal mind (xin Bo’ai), the virtue of insight (zhi) of social transformation and the virtue of cease (duan) of suffering.[37] In the libertarian framework of Maitriyana these three virtues can be cultivated progressively or simultaneously,[38] functioning as the direct cause (zheng yin), the revealing cause (liao yin) and the conditioning cause (yuan yin) of the Great Cure (Nirvana) of the world, which is nothing more than the unconcealment of the intrinsically free and enlightened mind of human being. In the practice of the libertarian meditation, this intrinsic nature of mind is revealed through an insight completely attuned to the radical Detachment from the illusions of the materialistic world, by expressing the essence of suchness (ziti xiang) through the process of traversing (Xunxi) the veils of mental and social illusion. Therefore, the emergence of the reconciling mind (xin Bo’ai) is an indistinguishable process of implementation of the Buddhist Anarchism, the first being the utopia in the internal world while the second is the utopia in the external world.[39] The revolutionary implementation of Maitriyana starts from the reconciling or fraternal mind (xin Bo’ai) in order to unconcealing the spiritual nature in the entire humanity, which implies to evanesce the capitalist repression based on greed, hatred and delusion. When the ethical virtue of compassionate wisdom (karuna-prajña) is carried out in the subjectivity of the apprentice, then the Utopian Awakening (Bodhi) of the world can be achieved.

Although the Buddhist Anarchism is not a mundane political system, it certainly shows a clear analysis which is capable of vanishing the evils of the world through the convergence between the libertarian narratives of Gautama and Kropotkin. This revolutionary articulation is based on the direct perception of the real problems of life, by identifying the causes of human suffering and by teaching a Path towards its dissolution or Cure (Nirvana). This is the Awakening (Bodhi) of the socialist revolution led by the Maitriyana as an Analytical-Existential-Libertarian Discourse (Buddha-Dharma-Sangha), showing an alternative to both the ordinary state of consciousness (ECO) and the social status quo. Thus the practice of revolutionary contemplation (kakumei-zen) seeks to recover the nature of the intrinsic Liberty (Ziyou) of the human being by means of peak knowledge (satori). In accordance with the Master Taixu, the Buddhist Anarchism is a methodology that extends from the analytical-existential sphere, which concerns the inner world and the world of ideas, towards the libertarian sphere concerning the social world, then positioning itself as a postmodern vision that emerges after deconstructing the mundane illusions. As a consecuence of such libertarian meditation it emerges a meta-reflexivity that outperforms the mere rationality, freeing the subject from the historical forces that determine the current order, in order to show then how can a new kind of subjectivity and society be achieved. Thus, the tradition of Maitriyana emerges as a Radical Spirituality that teaches the possibility of transforming the apprentice and the world. The theory and practice of the Buddhist Anarchism is the highest possibility of Liberty (Ziyou), Truth and Harmony which lie dormant waiting to be rediscovered in the face of the dysfunctional, artificial and authoritarian state policy. This is why, in Maitriyana, the secret of Cure (Nirvana) of the apprentice lies in the revelation of its structure of Interexistence by rediscovering or restoring serenity and peace within the intersubjective relations. Therefore, the struggle for the Libertion is developed through the development of this Truth, overcoming the internal and external constraints that generate psychological repression and political power. In this sense, the transgression of the authority performed by the Buddhist Anarchism is an inseparable process of returning to a lost social plenitude,[40] because once it is understood the current order of things it is opened the possibility to achieve a better alternative to the materialistic civilization. Definitively, like the teachings of the Awakening of Faith, the Gautama-Kropotkin articulation indicates that the Cure (Nirvana) or solution to suffering is found inherently in all human beings,[41] waiting to be recognized or unconcealed both in the field of mind and in the field of society. This Liberty (Ziyou) is the fundamental Truth that must be discovered by the individual through the suprarational Path of Maitriyana that disidentifies the mind from the oppressive structures that limit the potential for the welfare and self-realization. If all human beings are inherently free, then the role of the practice of revolutionary contemplation (kakumei-zen) is not so much about achieving something but rather causing or cultivating the event or recognition of what one always already is.[42] Therefore, the practice of libertarian meditation does not attempt to produce nothing but Liberty (Ziyou) or Awakening (Bodhi) which both are intrinsic to the human being. The tradition of Buddhist Anarchism develops this line of contemplative thought (zen) in the immediate position of here and now, where the cultivation of Cure (Nirvana) and self-realization of Being are equated as identical processes. According to the position of the spiritual master, the One Way (Ekayana) towards the Awakening (Bodhi) is by overcoming this false duality between achievement and spiritual nature, then understanding that the mystical cultivation must interconnect means with ends.[43] This leads to the Maitriyana’s critique towards state communism, stating that the dynamic process of utopian revolution can only be successfully achieved through a movement free from all authoritarianism; otherwise the revolution of the world simply would reinstate hierarchical and oppressive structures similar to those in capitalist State. Therefore, in order that any revolution is successful the means to carry it out must be consistent with the ends, by anticipating the utopia of the future society within the reconciled and fraternal mind (Bo’ai xin) which is in an embryonic state inside each apprentice. Thus, in the post-utopianism of Buddhist Anarchism it is transmitted the notion that the world revolution is already present in itself in the Liberation or Cure (Nirvana) of the individual, because the Awakened One (Buddha) is a precursor of future humanity. Actually, the evanescence of the world evils is not something that emerges after a long process, but rather is the very act of Detachment in the here and now as a first revolutionary act in the construction of a better society free of the oppression from State, religion and family. Thus the Maitriyana not only fuses cultivation with realization, but also revolution with utopia, demonstrating that the emergence of a Pure Earth (Renjian Jingtu) in the world is achieved in the Awakening (Bodhi) of the True Self. Even though this may seem an extreme utopianism, it is certainly something practicable and implementable through Buddhist Anarchism and its articulation Gautama-Kropotkin. Therefore, the values of Liberty (Ziyou), Equality (Pingdeng) and Fraternity (Bo’ai) for all the peoples of the Earth (Gaia) is the corporatization of the Cure (Nirvana), making emerge the future evolution of human being that lies latently or embryonically within the present and immediate consciousness. The revolutionary utopization of Maitriyana offers a concrete program of direct action against capitalist civilization, recommending the implementation of pacifism, communism, human rights, free education and environmental harmony as pillars that unite causes with fruits. Clearly, from here it is understood that the transformation of society can only be achieved through the transformation of mind, establishing the immanent possibility of revolutionary utopia of Awakening (Bodhi) in the inner and outer world.

Just like Master Taixu, the Buddhist Anarchism transmits a Postmodern Spirituality, synthesizing the libertarian narratives of Gautama and Kropotkin through an analytical-existential look applied to the social sphere. This enables to stop considering the capitalist enrichment as the glory of humanity for being an intrinsically bellicose, unjust, ignorant and polluting system. When the apprentice perceives things as they are, understanding the causes of social suffering, then the possibility of creating an alternative for a better world emerges: the Cure (Nirvana) or revolutionary utopia. But to achieve the Salvation and Evolution of humankind, the Free and Enlightened Being (Arhat-Bodhisattva) departs from the materialistic prehistory of a society based on the oppressive Power of the State, Religion and Family. Thus, the spiritual master promotes a revolutionary Discourse capable of being the next stage of human being:  the Analytical Existential-Libertarian Spirituality (Buddha-Dharma-Sangha), which is the embodiment of a progressive civilization based on the peak knowledge (satori) of Liberty (Ziyou), Equality (Pingdeng) and Fraternity (Bo’ai). But all this project of world Liberation is only possible if the apprentice uncovers the reconciling mind (xin Bo’ai) that remains hidden or unborn within the human being, thus allowing that society reaches the Awakening (Bodhi). In the Maitriyana, this implies a revolutionary strategy to overcome the social change difficulties, since it does not resort to any type of coercive authority, but aims to make emerge the mind of reconciliation (Bo’ai xin) as an ethical means for the purposes of libertarian socialist utopia. At the same time, however, the Buddhist Anarchism has a dialectical and simultaneous connection with such reconciliatory mind (xin Bo’ai) by reinforcing it and even co-emerging with it in the process of the Great Cure (Maha Nirvana) of society. Thus, through the libertarian meditation, the Free and Enlightened Being (Arhat-Bodhisattva) shows the utopian civilization of the future in the immanent experience of the here and now. Therefore, the Awakening (Bodhi) of the individual represents the highest point of the evolution of consciousness, yet also represents the beginning of the end of the capitalist system. However, the post-utopian position of Maitriyana enables to provide a program to achieve the ideals of Liberty (Ziyou), Equality (Pingdeng) and Fraternity (Bo’ai) among all peoples, even though the system of the mundane Power sows doubts and disillusion when trying to suppress and kill the leaders of the Pure Earth (Renjian Jingtu) in the world. This is because the spiritual master has a systemic relationship with the Pathway of Purpose (Dharmayana), by practicing revolutionary contemplation (kakumei-zen) to save the world through the Buddhist Spirituality.[44] In this way, the future generations will experience great admiration and inspiration for the radical and libertarian ideas of Gautama and Kropotkin by establishing a Pure Earth (Renjian Jingtu) or Kingdom of Heavens in the here and now after making emerge goodness, sane thought, rational behaviour and peak knowledge (Satori) in human beings.[45] Thus, only through the radical social ideas of Buddhist Anarchism, the evils of the world can be dispelled.


[1] J. R. Ritzinger, The Awakening of Faith in Anarchism: A forgotten chapter in the Chinese Buddhist Encounter with Modernity.

[2] M. Bingenheimer, Some Remarks on the Usage of Renjian Fojiao and the Contribution of Venerable Yinshun to Chinese Buddhist Modernism.

[3] Jiang Canteng, The early life of Master Taixu (1890–1927) [Taixu dashi qianzhuan (1890–1927)]. Don A. Pittman, Toward a Modern Chinese Buddhism: Taixu’s Reforms.

[4] Edward S. Krebs, Soul of Chinese Anarchism.

[5] Taixu, Autobiography of Taixu [Taixu zizhuan].

[6] Yinshun, Annalistic biography of the great master Taixu [Taixu dashi nianpu].

[7] Taixu, Autobiography of Taixu [Taixu zizhuan].

[8] Peter Zarrow, Anarchism and Chinese Political Culture.

[9] Arif Dirlik, Anarchism in the Chinese Revolution.

[10] Eric Goodell, Taixu’s Youth and Years of Romantic Idealism: 1890–1914.

[11] Yinshun, Taixu dashi nianpu [Annalistic biography of the great master Taixu].

[12] Shehui dang ren, Research on the three no’s [San wu zhuyi zhi yanjiu].

[13] Jiang Jun and Li Xingzhi, The intellectual current of anarchism in modern China [Zhongguo jindai de wuzhengfuzhuyi sichao].

[14] Taixu, A cursory discussion of the equalization of wealth: equal education as method; communism as goal [Jun pin fu qianshuo: yi pingdeng jiaoyu wei shouxu, yi gongchan zhuyi wei mudi].

[15] Taixu, A comprehensive view of the Socialist Party and Chinese Socialist Party [Shehui dang yu zhongguo shehui dang zhi bamian guan].

[16] Liu Shifu, The government and the socialist parties [Zhengfu yu shehui dang].

[17] Taixu, The Three Great Evils of the World (Shijie zhi san da zui’e).

[18] Taixu, The Three Great Evils of the World (Shijie zhi san da zui’e).

[19] Kang Youwei, Book of Grand Unity (Datong shu).

[20] J. R. Ritzinger, The Awakening of Faith in Anarchism: A forgotten chapter in the Chinese Buddhist Encounter with Modernity.

[21] Taixu, The Three Great Evils of the World (Shijie zhi san da zui’e).

[22] Taixu, The Three Great Evils of the World (Shijie zhi san da zui’e).

[23] Taixu, The Three Great Evils of the World (Shijie zhi san da zui’e).

[24] Ashvaghosha, The Awakening of Faith.

[25] Taixu, The Three Great Evils of the World (Shijie zhi san da zui’e).

[26] Taixu, The Three Great Evils of the World (Shijie zhi san da zui’e).

[27] Andrew F. Jones, Developmental Fairy Tales: Evolutionary Thinking and Modern Chinese Culture.

[28] J. R. Ritzinger, The Awakening of Faith in Anarchism: A forgotten chapter in the Chinese Buddhist Encounter with Modernity.

[29] Taixu, The Three Great Evils of the World (Shijie zhi san da zui’e).

[30] Taixu, The Three Great Evils of the World (Shijie zhi san da zui’e).

[31] Taixu, The Three Great Evils of the World (Shijie zhi san da zui’e).

[32] Taixu, The Three Great Evils of the World (Shijie zhi san da zui’e).

[33] Taixu, The Three Great Evils of the World (Shijie zhi san da zui’e).

[34] J. R. Ritzinger, The Awakening of Faith in Anarchism: A forgotten chapter in the Chinese Buddhist Encounter with Modernity.

[35] Taixu, The Three Great Evils of the World (Shijie zhi san da zui’e).

[36] Taixu, The Three Great Evils of the World (Shijie zhi san da zui’e).

[37] Taixu, The Three Great Evils of the World (Shijie zhi san da zui’e).

[38] Master Ouyi Zhixu, Outline of the [Tiantai] Teachings and Contemplations (Jiaoguan gangzong).

[39] J. R. Ritzinger, The Awakening of Faith in Anarchism: A forgotten chapter in the Chinese Buddhist Encounter with Modernity.

[40] Saul Newman, Anarchism, Utopianism and the Politics of Emancipation.

[41] J. R. Ritzinger, The Awakening of Faith in Anarchism: A forgotten chapter in the Chinese Buddhist Encounter with Modernity.

[42] J. R. Ritzinger, The Awakening of Faith in Anarchism: A forgotten chapter in the Chinese Buddhist Encounter with Modernity.

[43] On Bernard Faure, The Rhetoric of Immediacy: A Cultural Critique of Chan/Zen Buddhism.

[44] Taixu, My Religious Experiences (Wo de zongjiao jingyan).

[45] Taixu, Creating a pure land on earth [Chuangzao renjian jingtu].


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